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Why the Big Bang Theory is Wrong and a Theory that Replaces It

“A true idea must agree with that with which it is the idea.”

--Spinoza

“The truth is like an infinite wheel, you can never really reach it, but with each turn of the wheel, you get closer to it.”

--Albert Einstein

“In each and every one of us is a spark of genius, which can ignite and be set aflame under the proper conditions.”

--Allen Klein

 

Cumulative Field Theory, which Replaces the Big Bang Theory

The Cumulative Field Theory is a theory that replaces the erroneous Big Bang Theory.  The Big Bang Theory, which was previously called the Cosmic Egg theory, was developed to explain the mysterious red-shifting of light from distant galaxies.  It is important to note that no human being, with or witout a telescope has ever seen the galaxies moving away from the earth.  All that was observed is light from distant galaxies is shifted toward the red end of the spectrum, which is called “red-shifting.”

Figure 1: The adsorption line spectrum from distant galaxies is shifted toward the red end (longer wavelengths) of the electromagnetic energy spectrum.  In other words, the light is red-shifted.  Astronomers do not see the galaxies moving away from the earth; they only observe that the light from distant galaxies is red-shifted.

From this observed red-shifting, Hubble assumed the red-shifting was due to the Doppler Effect, which implied that the galaxies were receding or moving away from the earth.  Hubble then assumed that these galaxies were all moving away at the same rate for billions of years—leading him to assume that at one time they were all packed together, and had a universal explosion or Big Bang. 

Hubble first proposed his Cosmic Egg Theory, now called the Big Bang Theory in 1929, yet several decades later Einstein and many other scientists did not believe the theory for several reasons.  Hubble had predicted the universe to be two billion years old, but radioactive dating of rocks showed the earth to be older than that.  In the words of Isaac Asimov, ”prior to 1952, at least, the big bang theory seemed to have an element of impossibility to it.  It placed zero time two eons in the past, when the earth was nearly five eons old.”

As mentioned above, no human being, with or without a telescope, has ever seen the galaxies moving away from the earth.  All that has been observed is that the light from distant galxies is red-shifted.  It should also be noted that our neighboring Andromeda galaxy is probably moving toward us.  There is also evidence of galactic collisions (two galaxies colliding), which means they were moving toward eachother; which contradicts the Big Bang theory. 

As mentioned above, all that is observed is red-shifted light.  Prior theories, including the Big Bang Theory, assumed that the red-shifting of light from distant galaxies was due to recession, which implied that the galaxies were moving away from the earth.  They were based on the concept of light as a wave.  However, recession is not the only cause of red-shifting.  The Cumulative Field Theory takes into account that light has mass.  The Cumulative Field Theory predicts that light from distant galaxies is red-shifted by gravitational fields and galactic fields. 

Einstein first proposed that gravitational fields can red-shift light in his General Theory of Relativity.  This gravitational red-shifting was confirmed by experiment when light rays passing by the sun were bent and red-shifted by the sun’s gravitational field.  The Cumulative Field Theory goes on to state that light from distant galaxies is red-shifted by the gravitational fields of the interim matter.  Between a distant galaxy and the earth, there is a large amount of matter.  As the light passes by the matter, gravity red-shifts the light.  The farther away the galaxy, the more matter there is between the galaxy and the earth, the greater the red-shifting. 

 

Figure 2: Red-shift increases with increasing distance.  The farther away the source of light, the greater amount of red-shifting.  The light is red-shifted by the interim fields  in a cumulative manner.  The total red-shift is the sum of the individual red-shifts.   

The Cumulative Field Theory and the Big Bang theory differ in several respects.  First of all, the Big Bang Theory assumes that the universe if finite.  The Big Bang Theory hypothesizes  that all matter in the universe was confined to a finite and very small region of space.  Unlike the Big Bang theory, the Cumulative Field Theory is based on an infinite universe.  Many of the greatest minds of all time believed the universe to be infinite.  Galileo, Newton, Spinoza, and Einstein all believed the universe to be infintie.  Even Stephen Hawking acknowledged that the universe was infinite in his quote, “from the very beginning, we have struggled to understand time, matter, and the infinite universe; who we are, where we are headed , and if we are alone.”

Given an infinite universe, if the universe were compressed in the past as the Big Bang supposes, for example to ½ of its present size, it would still be infinite, because half of an infinity is still an infinity.  If it were compressed to ¼ of its present size, it would still be infinite becase ¼ of an infinity is still an infinity.  And so on.  It would take an infinite amount of time, not 22 billion years to compress an infinite universe into a finite space.  Hence, the Big Bang Theory is not even possible in an infinite universe.  An infinite amount of matter cannot be compressed into a finite space.  This is in part why Einstein himself did not believe in the Big Bang Theory.

The Big Bang Theory has another serious problem; it predicts a singularity.  In a singularity, all matter is proposed to occupy an extremelhy small space, near zero in dimension.  A singularity cannot be described by and seems to defy the laws of physics.  The Cumulative Field Theory, on the other hand, does not predict a singularity.

Prior theories, including the Big Bang Theory were based on the concept of light as a wave.  The Cumulative Field Theory takes into account that light is not only a wave; it is also a partiicle. 

Light may be thought of as a 3-dimensional wave; a two-dimensional wave with the added dimension of thickness.  This 3-dimensional wave is a photon, or particle of light.  As it travels, a particle of light is red-shifted, or loses energy, as it passes by the gravitational fields of the interim matter.  The light loses energy sort of like a “drag” effect of the interim matter on the light.  All other matter experiences some energy loss or “Drag” as it travels through space.  Light, since it has mass, is no exeption.  The speed of light however, is a constant, so light loses energy by red-shifting. 

Based on Einstein’s Space substance Theory, sapce is not a vacuum.  There is an immense amount of matter in space, ranging from particles to meteors, asteroids to moons, planets to stars.  As a photon of light travels, it passes by the gravitational fields of the interim matter in space.  The gravitational fields of the interim matter red-shift the light.  The effect is small and difficult to measure over small distances, but over vast galactic distances and huge quantities of matter, the cumulative effect of the matter on the light is significant. 

As lilght travels from a distant galaxy to the earth, there is a large amount of matter that causes gravitational red-shifting of the light.  The farther away the galaxy, the more matter there is between the gaalaxy and the earth, hence the greater the amount of gravitational red-shifting.  This agrees exactly with the observation that more distant galaxies are red-shifted more. 

Thus, the true cause of red-shifted light from distant galaxies is not due to a Big Bang, it is probably due to gravitational red-shifting (and galactic red-shifting) by the interim matter on the light.

 

 


Figure 3: Light from galaxy 1 to the earth  must pass through the fields of the interim matter, which red-shifts the light.  Light from a farther galaxy, galaxy 2, must pass through more interim matter between itself and the earth, so the light will be red-shifted more.

Dr. Klein published his Cumulative Effect of Fields Theory, “An Alternate Theory to the Big Bang,” in the Indian Journal of Theoretical Physics